Primary aldosteronism is a disease that causes too much aldosterone to be made in one adrenal gland (unilateral disease) or both adrenal glands (bilateral disease). It can lead to hypertension and low potassium levels.
A blood test can help diagnose primary aldosteronism by measuring the levels of aldosterone and renin in your blood. These hormones are made by your kidneys.
In this test, a blood sample is taken from a vein inside your arm. Your doctor may ask you to fast (no food or drink) for a certain amount of time before the test.
The results from this blood test can help diagnose primary hyperaldosteronism, as they show whether the body is producing too much aldosterone. If the result is high, this means that there are problems with the adrenal glands.
A problem with the adrenal glands can be caused by overactivity of both glands or by a benign tumor on one gland. These problems account for about 60% to 70% of primary aldosteronism cases.
A number of medications are used to treat this condition. These include drugs that block the activity of the aldosterone-producing hormone, called renin. Some of these medications can also help lower the level of sodium in your blood.
The Captopril Challenge (CCT) is an alternative to the saline infusion test and is often used as a confirmatory test for primary aldosteronism. This test uses captopril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, to determine whether your renin level is suppressed after taking the drug.
The CCT is a noninvasive medical test that measures the change in renin plasma levels after captopril is given to patients with hypertension or other conditions. It can be performed in the patient's home or at a hospital.
The Endocrine Society guidelines recommend that a patient with an elevated ARR undergo a confirmatory test such as the oral sodium loading test, fludrocortisone suppression test, and captopril challenge test before making a diagnosis of PA. However, there is insufficient data about the diagnostic accuracy of these tests in Chinese subjects.
The Oral Sodium Loading Test, also known as the Salt Infusion Test, is one of the tests that is part of the Fludrocortisone Suppression Test for Primary Aldosteronism. Patients ingest 12-gram sodium chloride tablets over 3 days, and then urine is collected for 24 hours to measure the urinary excretion of aldosterone.
The test is fairly inexpensive and can be performed at home. However, it is important to note that the test involves a fair amount of risk since primary aldosteronism is a salt-sensitive form of hypertension.
The underlying condition is the inappropriate production of excessive aldosterone by the adrenal glands. It is called primary aldosteronism (PA) and can be caused by a variety of conditions, including bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and aldosterone-producing adenomas.
Sodium is an electrolyte (a mineral or chemical with an electrical charge) that is present in your body fluids, including blood. It is important to your health and helps regulate your blood pressure, potassium levels, and water balance in the body.
Your body's kidneys secrete a hormone called aldosterone to control this process. When your adrenal glands make too much aldosterone, it can cause high blood pressure and other problems.
The most reliable way to confirm primary hyperaldosteronism is by testing your 24-hour urine aldosterone level. If the aldosterone level is elevated, this means that you have this condition.
The Endocrine Society recommends four tests to test for this disease: oral sodium loading, saline infusion, fludrocortisone suppression testing, and captopril challenge testing. While the fludrocortisone test is considered the gold standard, it can be expensive and difficult to perform. This test is also prone to false-positive results. Patients who have a borderline or equivocal result should undergo a confirmatory test to ensure that the diagnosis is accurate.